CED Gabay. II. CONCEPTS IN ASSESSING STUDENT LEARNING. 1. Role of Measurement and Assessment in teaching De Guzman Santos Rosita, et. ADVANCED METHODS IN EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING 2. Rosita De Guzman-Santos, Ph.D. These approaches are classified below (source: Rosita de Guzman-Santos, ): . 1. Clarity of Learning Targets Assessment can be made precise, accurate.
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Friday, May 22, Evaluation Method: Evaluation is methodologically diverse using both qualitative and quantitative methods, including case studies, survey research, statistical analysis and model building among other. The CIPP systematizes the way to evaluate the different dimensions and aspects of curriculum development and the sum total of student experiences in the educative process. The model require the stakeholders be involved in the evaluation process. In this approach, the user is asked to to go through a series of questions in the context, inputs, process and product stages.
Some questions are listed below: Context What is the relation of the course to other courses? Is the time adequate? What are the critical or important dee factors? Should courses be integrated or separate? Is there a need for the course?
Is the course relevant to job needs?
Inputs What is the entering ability of students? What are the learning skills of students? What is the motivation of students? What are the living conditions of students? What is the students’ existing knowledge? Are the aims suitable? Do the objectives derive from aims? Is the course content clearly defined? Does the content match byy abilities?
Is the content relevant to practical problems? What books do teachers have? What books do the students have? How strong are the teaching skills of teachers? What time is available compared with the workload for preparation?
What KAS related to the subject, do the teachers have? How supportive is the classroom environment? How many students are there? How many teachers are there?
How is the course organized? What regulations relate to training?
Process Rossita is the workload of students? Are there any problems related to teaching? Are there any problems related to learning? Is there an effective 2-way communications? Is knowledge only transferred to students, or do they use and apply it? How is discipline maintained? Product Is there one final exam at the end or several during the course? Is b any informal assessment? What is the quality of assessment what levels of KSA are assessed? What are the students’ KSA levels after the course?
How do students use what they have learned? How was the over-all experience for the teachers and for the students? What are the main lessons learned?
Is there an official report? Has the teachers’ reputation improved or been ruined as a result? The guide questions are not answered by the teacher only or by a single individual. Instead, there are m,any ways in which they can be answered. Some of the more common methods are listed below: Evaluation approaches are the various conceptual arrangements made for designing and actually conducting the evaluation process. These approaches are classified below source: Rosita de Guzman-Santos, These approaches are not acceptable evaluation practice, although the seasoned reader can surely think of a few examples where they have been used.
Information obtained through politically controlled studies is released or withheld to meet the special interest of the holder. Public relations studies or information is used to paint a positive image of an object regardless of the actual situation. These are highly respected collection of disciplined inquiry approaches.
The are quasi-evaluation because particular studies legitimately can focus only on questions of knowledge without addressing any questions of value.
Such studies are, by definitions, not evaluations since it produce only characterizations without appraisals. This is used to determine causal relationships between variables. Its highly controlled and stylized methodology may not be sufficiently responsive to the dynamically changing needs of most human service programs, and thus posed its potential problem. Management information Systems MIS.
This can give detailed information about the dynamic operations of complex programs. However, this information is learinng to readily quantifiable data usually available at regular intervals. These programs are good at comparing individuals or groups to selected norms in a number of subject areas or to set a standards of performance.
However, they only focus on the testee performance and they might not adequately sample what is taught or expected. These relate outcomes to prespecified objectives, allowing judgments to be made about their level of attainment.
Unfortunately, hey only focus on outcomes too narrow to provide basis for determining the value of an object. This approach is considered a quasi-evaluation learnlng it is not based on value assessmejt, only based on knowledge, thus not true evaluation. On the other hand, when content analysis judgments are based on values, such studies are evaluation. Accountability is popular with constituents because it is intended to provide an accurate accounting of results that can improve the quality of products and services.
However, this approach can quickly turn practitioners and consumers into adversaries when implemented in a heavy-handed fashion.
Objectivist, elite, true evaluation.
The drawback in these studies can be corrupted or subverted by the politically motivated actions of the participants.
These are designed to provide knowledge based for making and defending decisions. It requires close collaboration between the evaluator and decision-maker allowing it to be susceptible to corruption and bias. These provide general guidance and direction on broad issues by identifying and assessing potential costs and benefits of competing policies.
Objectivist, mass, true evaluation. Consumer-oriented studies are used to judge the relative merits of goods and services based on generalized needs and values, along with a comprehensive range of effects. However, this approach does not necessarily help practitioners improve their work, and it requires a very good and credible evaluation to do it well. Subjectivist, elite, true evaluation. They draw on the insights, experience and expertise of qualified individuals who use established guidelines to determine if the applicant should be approved to perform specified functions.
However, unless performance-based standards are used, attributes of applicants and the processes they preform often are over-emphasized in relation to measure of outcomes or effects.
Subjectivist, mass, true evaluation. These studies help people understand the activities and values involved from a variety of perspectives. However, this responsive approach can lead to low external credibility and a favorable bias toward those who participated in the study.
This helps ensure a balanced presentation of different perspectives on the issues, but also likely to discourage later cooperation and heighten animosities between contesting parties if “winners” and “losers” emerge.
Client-centered studies address specific concerns and issues of practitioners and other clients of the study in a particular setting. These studies help people understand the activities and values involved from a variety of perspoectves. Evaluation is defined as a systematic, continuous and comprehensive process of determining the growth and progress of the pupil towards objectives or values of the curriculum.
It is also a systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone. Furthermore, it is used to characterize and appraise subjects of interest in a wide range of human enterprises.
The American Evaluation Association created a set of Guiding Principles for evaluators which can equally apply in the Philippine context: Evaluation must be based on concrete evidence and data to support the inquiry process.
Evaluators ensure the honesty and integrity of the entire evaluation process. Evaluators respect the security, dignity and self-worth of the respondents, program participants, clients and other stakeholders with whom they interact. Evaluators articulate and take into account the diversity of interests and values that guzman-ssantos be related to the general and public welfare.
The above-mentioned evaluation guiding principles can be used in various levels: These principles serve as benchmarks for good practices in educational evaluation.