PDF | Objective: Early initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by witnesses increases survival Resuscitation ; As school children with training in CPR increase, the proportion of individuals in society with training .. Emerg Med Clin North Am. ;– doi: /j. emc . Okullarda Etkili KPR Eğitimi: “Çocuklar da Hayat Kurtarır”. Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi, Cilt 8, Sayı 4, / Medical Journal of Bakırköy, Volume 8, Halktan ilkyardım uygulayıcısı eğitimi ve toplu yaşam alanlarında otomatik eksternal .. ventilation ratios during one-rescuer CPR by professionals and lay.
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Sudden cardiac cr is one of the most common causes of preventable death in the industrialized world. In countries with organized emergency health services, it is possible to increase the rate of resuscitation performed by the eitmi and save more lives. Increasing the rate of correct intervention by those witnessing sudden cardiac death requires an increase in the number of adults with training in CPR in society.
Resuscitation training should begin in the school years to reach the whole of society within time.
School Children Save Lives
As school children with training in CPR increase, the proportion of individuals in society with training and the desire to help others increases, which causes a general increase in resuscitation rates. One of the most important steps in increasing the resuscitation rates performed by the public globally and enhancing survival is through training school children.
In the industrialised countries, after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, sudden cardiac arrest is the third most common cause of death outside the hospital CAOH 1. If educated persons who witness sudden cardiac arrest immediately initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the survival rates can be increased 2. While billions of euros, dollars, and other currencies are being invested to reduce deaths in traffic accidents, the budget allocated to prevent sudden cardiac arrest and for cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR to be applied in such eigimi situation and for educating the society on this subject is very limited.
However, failure to ditimi perform CPR in people who experience CAOH can cause deaths in a number that is 20 times higher than that in traffic accidents. Few patients who have sudden cardiac arrest outside the hospital can maintain their previous life quality 5. However, it is necessary to raise awareness in society and give education regarding it. After a sudden cardiac arrest, the brain cells can tolerate only 3—5 min of anoxia. In almost all cases, this is a much less time than the time needed to reach emergency medical services.
There is strong scientific evidence eitiim survival increases 2—4 times after basic life support BLS is immediately initiated by those who witness cardiac arrest outside the hospital 7 — 9. Neurological damage begins in the brain at the end of 3—5 min of anoxia; therefore, usually, nothing is done in this period, which goes on until the emergency medical personnel arrive, which is important for a quality survival of the patient.
However, heart massage performed by the surrounding people can be life saver until the arrival of urgent health services An effective CPR is quite easy, and contrary to what is thought, the etiimi of harming that person with incorrect CPR application is very low. If CPR is not applied, the possibility of death is very high In a questionnaire survey conducted in our country, when the community was questioned about the concerns regarding CPR application, it was determined that To reduce these concerns, awareness should be raised and the community needs to be educated.
The greatest impact of mandatory CPR training for school children across the country is the increase in the rate of CPR initiated by witnesses 51114 — Teachers have stated that teaching CPR to children is fun and that they rarely see their students as enthusiastic as in the CPR training. Another aspect of CPR training in schools is the acquisition of children who learn to help others and are happy with this 5.
CPR training in school children is compulsory in several countries; local, regional and national initiatives have been introduced in eitimu countries 5. The ERC, the American Heart Association AHA and other institutions that focus on resuscitation have made a significant effort towards this approach and have become pioneers of it.
A detailed curriculum has been developed for CPR training at schools www. In this declaration, it is suggested that all over the eitiji, a 2-h CPR training should be provided to students aged 12 years in schools every year AHA supported compulsory resuscitation training in American schools in The countries where resuscitation training was integrated into educational programmes of the schools reported significantly higher resuscitation rates 79.
Five years after the compulsory CPR training was added to school curriculums in Denmark, the rate of resuscitation performed by the witnesses increased almost twofold, and the rate of survival after cardiac arrest outside the hospital increased threefold in 10 years 9 It is important to start resuscitation training at school ages.
All groups in the society can be accessed this way. The development of the sense of responsibility at a young age is more permanent and makes it easier to overcome social barriers 5.
Researches examining the social approach have found that children who have not yet entered puberty, in other words, children in the prepubertal period show a less timid approach towards resuscitation training. The most powerful factor that prevents performing eitiki action in real-life situations is the fear of making mistakes. This factor can be resolved through a more comfortable and natural communication with school children.
It would also make sense to include resuscitation training in the related school subjects such as biology, sport or health education 5. As far as high schools are concerned, this education is not included in the education curriculum of Anatolian and Science High Schools. Individuals who will be involved pcr resuscitation training in 202 within the framework of a created programme may be health care professionals, physical education teachers and biology teachers who have been trained to teach CPR A written or practice exam is performed, although studies have shown that there is a weak correlation between the two in children 23 Hands-on training is an important part of resuscitation training.
Some studies have reported that the children trained only theoretically perform poorly in practical exams In another study, only an educational video was shown to a group of school children for training, and in the other group, education was given by an instructor and hands-on training was performed on a model.
While the guides include the use of chest compressions and ventilations in resuscitation training, the application of only continuous chest compressions is an alternative approach that may increase volunteerism in witnesses to initiate CPR. It is not clear yet whether chest compressions-respiratory cycles performed by children are more effective than compressions alone As for the educational tools, training kits a min DVD and an inflatable model are also available for resuscitation training.
An advantage of the self-study kit is that it can be used to train a large number of children. Another advantage of the kits is that CPR training can be given to adults or peers at home. Studies conducted in Norway reported that between 2. An Italian study showed a domino effect of 1. The Danish group reported that an average of 2.
Despite significant improvements after training, the CPR quality is still observed to be poor when tested.
School Children Save Lives
Hands-on training has an important place in resuscitation training. Although theoretical training alone can reduce the time and resources required, children who receive only theoretical training perform poorly on skill tests. Researchers have shown that there eitini no difference between those who have not received hands-on training and those who have received online training Another study found that children who attended online and hands-on training performed basic CPR better than those who received only online training Children aged 8—11 years who received only theoretical training failed in the multiple-choice assessment test at a rate higher than that in those who additionally received hands-on training In other studies, it has been found that 2021 children who receive hands-on training have better practical skills related to CPR In a study 18 that was conducted by searching the literature on the subject and through the compilation and summarisation of various eiimi scientific articles to determine the most appropriate BLS education for school children, it was reported that the optimal age for giving CPR ccpr was 12—13 years.
Regarding computer-based education, there are various studies wherein school children used computer-based education for CPR training. A training that is short and eltimi on practice can be successful. After a min intensive training programme, CPR skills were achieved in Another study found that In this study, ventilation assessment was performed by measuring the tidal volumes mL recorded by a software program on a computerised training model Laerdal Megacode Platz HeartSimLaerdal Medical AS, Stavanger, Norwaywherein the practical application was made.
Regarding strategies of information eitimii, studies 20122 the retention rates of knowledge gained in 2 months to 5 years showed eitimo improvements in tests performed immediately after training, and then, there was a regression towards the starting point 3342 — In a study, a video programme and practical application, then individual applications on training models and a total of min of training sessions were conducted in children.
After 6 months, the training was repeated in half of those who received training. In the tests performed a few months after the last training, the performance on basic skills was found to be significantly better in those who received training twice In another study that lasted 4 years, a 2-h practical training was given after a training program including 1 h of theoretical training with a standard computer presentation.
Consequently, in practical application, the focus is on the correctness and quality of chest compressions, particularly without mouth-to-mouth respiration. In this study, in yearly and 6-month periods in which crp same training is repeatedthe groups receiving education twice a year were examined yearly before repeated training and at eitimii 7 months after last training ; no significant ditimi was found with respect to training that is given twice a year, and the authors noted that there were complaints of boredom and lack of motivation due to frequent trainings CPR instructors are usually health professionals or school teachers.
When the branches of teachers are assessed in terms of CPR training, the success rate of one is not very different from the other. However, because healthcare workers are used less, the reduction of cost and programming difficulties is among the benefits of school teachers.
Bringing resuscitation to the world
The training of teachers by health educators should provide a longer-term investment. Teachers are voluntary trainers as long as they receive appropriate training. Students trained by high-rated teachers perform considerably better than those trained by low-rated teachers Another potential trainer eitumi is the medical faculty students, from 1 st to 5 th grades having a BLS certificate, crp trained school children in several studies.
After receiving a total of 7. In another study, medical student trainers were used for CPR training in school children mean age, 17 yearsand it was suggested that the success partly depended on the facilitation of teaching due to the age similarity between instructors and students 48 — Eitiml have shown how little training children need to successfully use an automatic external defibrillator AED.
Fifteen children aged 11—12 years who were not previously trained were given verbal instructions about AED. All of them used AEDs to defibrillate the model by placing the pads properly, and the duration from the beginning of the scenario to the application of shock was approximately 90 s.
The authors concluded that using AED is as simple as using a TV remote control for these children In summary, an ideal resuscitation training for school children can be achieved through a training for 2 h every year and repeating this training every year. This training can be realised through a 15—20 min theoretical lesson using a pre-prepared video presentation, followed by a practical training on a model, which should constitute a total of 50—min duration for practical and theoretical training.
CPR training given at school ages will help educate children and in turn save thousands of lives.
No conflict of interest was declared by the authors. The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.
ERC | Bringing resuscitation to the world
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. Published online Jun 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jun 2; Accepted Feb 6. Abstract Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common causes of preventable death in the industrialized world.
School children, basic life support, education, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Introduction In the industrialised countries, after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, sudden cardiac arrest is the third most common cause of death outside the hospital CAOH 1. Conclusion In summary, an ideal resuscitation training for school children can be achieved through a training for 2 h every eiyimi and repeating this training every year.