PALABRAS CLAVE: Civilización Maya, Códice de Dresde, Venus, of the Dresden Codex describe the Mayan Venus calendar along with the augural. Códice de Dresde. Un comentario al Códice de Dresde. Libro de jeroglifos mayas (Spanish Edition) [Thompson John Eric Sidney] on *FREE* . Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page
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Maya codices singular codex are folding books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark paper. The folding books are the products of professional scribes working under the patronage of deities such as the Tonsured Maize God and the Howler Monkey Gods. Most of the codices were destroyed by conquistadors and Catholic priests in the 16th century. The codices have been named for the cities where they eventually settled.
The Dresden codex is generally considered the most important of the few that survive. The paper was made from the inner bark of certain trees, the main being the wild fig tree or amate Ficus glabrata.
The Maya developed their huun -paper around the 5th century,  which is roughly the same time that the codex became predominant over the scroll in the Roman world. Maya paper was more durable and a better writing surface than papyrus.
Our knowledge of ancient Maya thought must represent only a tiny fraction of the whole picture, for of the thousands of books in which the full extent of their learning and ritual was recorded, only four have survived to modern times as though all that posterity knew of ourselves were to be based upon three prayer books and Pilgrim’s Progress.
We found a large number of books in these characters and, as they contained nothing in which were not to be seen as superstition and lies of the devil, we burned them all, which they regretted to an amazing degree, and which caused them much affliction.
Such codices were the primary written records of Maya civilization, together with the many inscriptions on stone monuments and stelae that survived. Their range of subject matter in all likelihood embraced more topics than those recorded in stone and buildings, and was more like what is found on painted ceramics the so-called ‘ceramic codex’. Alonso de Zorita wrote that in he saw numerous such books in the Guatemalan highlands that “recorded their history for more than eight hundred years back, and that were interpreted for me by very ancient Indians” Zorita A fourth codex that remained controversial until has been authenticated.
Recent research, which includes a study that used everything from X-rays to UV imaging and microscopic analysis, points to its authenticity. It is the most elaborate of the codices, and also a highly important specimen of Maya art.
Many sections are ritualistic including so-called ‘almanacs’others are of an astrological nature eclipsesthe Venus cycles.
The Dresden Codex
The codex is written drdsde a long sheet of paper that is ‘screen-folded’ to make a book of 39 leaves, written on both sides. It was probably written between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
Exactly how the Dresden Codex ended up in Europe is not clear.
Even though the last date entry in the book is from several centuries before its relocation, the book was likely used and added to until just before the conquerors took it. These tables focus on eclipses, equinoxes and solstices, the sidreal cycle of Mars, and the synodic cycles of Mars and Venus.
These observations allowed the Mayans to plant the calendar year, agriculture, and religious ceremonies around the stars. In the text, Mars is represented by a long nosed deer, and Venus is represented by a star. Pages are eclipse tables. These tables accurately predicted solar eclipses for 33 years in the 8 th Century, though the predictions of lunar eclipses were far less successful.
Icons of serpents devouring the sun symbolize eclipses throughout the book. The glyphs show roughly 40 times in the text, making eclipses a major focus of the Dresden Codex.
The first 52 pages of the Dresden Codex are about divination. The Mayan astronomers would use the codex for day keeping, but also determining the cause of sickness and other misfortunes. Though a wide variety of gods and goddesses appear in the Dresden Codex, the Moon Goddess is the only neutral figure . In the first 23 pages of the book, she is mentioned far more than any other god.
The Codex was discovered in Spain in the s; it was divided into two parts of differing sizes that were found in different locations. The Madrid Codex is the longest of the surviving Maya codices. The codex also contains astronomical tables, although less than are found in the other two generally accepted surviving Maya codices. Some scholars, such as Michael Coe and Justin Kerr,  have suggested that the Madrid Codex dates to after the Spanish conquest but the evidence overwhelmingly favours a pre-conquest date for the document.
Other scholars have expressed a differing opinion, noting that the codex is similar in style to murals found at Chichen ItzaMayapan and sites on the east coast such as Santa Rita, Tancah and Tulum.
The Paris Codex also or formerly the Codex Peresianus contains prophecies for tuns and katuns see Maya Calendaras well as a Maya zodiac, and is thus, in both respects, akin to the Books of Chilam Balam. Three years later the first reproduction drawing of it was prepared for Lord Kingsboroughby his Lombardian artist Agostino Aglio.
The original drawing is now lost, but a copy survives among some of Kingsborough’s unpublished proof sheetsheld in collection at the Newberry LibraryChicago.
While the three codices above were known to scholars since the 19th codixe, the Grolier Codex only surfaced in the s. The codex, said to have been found in a cave, is really a fragment of 10 pages.
Each page shows a hero or god, facing to the left. At the top of each page is a number, and down the left of each page is what appears to be a list of dates. The pages are much less detailed than in the other codices, and hardly provide any information fl is not already in the Dresden Codex. After a study was conducted which includes everything from X-rays to UV imaging and microscopic analysis, in the authenticity of the Grolier Codex was announced.
Given the rarity and importance of these books, rumors of dresd new ones often develop interest. Archaeological excavations of Maya sites have turned up a number of rectangular lumps of plaster and paint flakes, most commonly in elite tombs.
These lumps are the remains of codices where all the organic material has rotted away. A few of the more coherent of these lumps have been preserved, with the slim hope that some technique to be developed by future generations of archaeologists may be able to recover some information from these remains of ancient pages. Unfortunately, all of them have degraded into unopenable masses or collections of very small flakes and bits of the original texts.
Thus it may never be possible to read them. Since the start of the 20th century, forgeries of varying quality have been produced. Two elaborate early 20th-century forged codices were in the collection of William Randolph Hearst.
Although fake codices have seldom fooled serious scholars, the Grolier Codex may be an exception. Its paper seems to be ancient, and the influential Mayanist Michael D. Coe believed the artifact to be genuine, followed in this by Stephen Houston and Karl Taube all three scholars stemming from Yale ; but other eminent Mayanists such as J.
Los códices prehispánicos | Arqueología Mexicana
Thompson Claude Baudez and Susan Milbrath  concluded that its pictures and glyphs are falsifications. They pointed out a long series of inconsistencies and errors in the alleged codex, and drew attention to its art historical improbability and its uselessness for astrological and divinatory purposes. In September Coe and other researchers published findings supporting its authenticity;  but in an extensive rejoinder AugustBruce Love  concluded that the artefact’s authenticity had not been established.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Complete Book of Handcrafted Paper. The MayaLondon: Thames and Hudson, 4th ed. Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World.
Yucatan Before and After the Conquest. An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth.
Handbook of Archaeastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: The Divination Pages ” “. Mysterious ancient Maya book, Grolier Codex, is genuine: Accessed 12 September Archived from the original PDF on Breaking the Maya Code. Ancient peoples and places series 6th, fully revised and expanded ed. London and New York: Love, Bruce August Latin American Indian Literatures Journal.
Miller, Mary Ellen Maya Art and Architecture. The Ancient Maya 6th fully revised ed. New Theories on the Ancient Maya. University Museum Monograph series, no. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. Contributions of the University of California. Retrieved from ” https: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 errors: Views Read Edit View history.
Maya codices – Wikipedia