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Complete circuit of the mono- stereo switch. With no current through the shunt, PI is used to set the output voitage of A1 to nominally 6 J V, so that the circuit is just on the point of switching over from D4 to D5. The circuit will thus always reach equilibrium with Vj – V 2.

If no current is drawn from C2 it will eventually charge to about The voltage drop across D2 reverse-biases the base-emitter junction of Tl, so that this transis- tor is turned off and the lamps are not lit. This usually consists of a FET source- follower incorporated into the microphone capsule, which acts as an impedance transformer with an output impedance of a few hundred ohms.

Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The full-scale deflec- tion of the mil li amine ter depends on the maxi- mum hpE be measured.

Printed circuit board and com- ponent layout for the preamplifier EPS A higher supply voltage is permissible, if it is easier 52 2 to obtain 4. The resulting positive voltage is applied to a com- parator! To restore the correct DC bias conditions it will elekktor be necessary to reduce the value of R6, and this will result elekktor a slight increase in current consump- tion, However, reducing the value of R7 does lower the output impedance of the preamp, which means that longer cables can be driven without attenuation of high frequency signals.

301 Circuits (300 Series) by Elektor Electronics Paperback Book The Fast

Presettable resistors may also be used. Switching to mono sums the two channels and the antiphase noise signals cancel. This enables counters 1C5 and 1C6. As is apparent the duration of the output pulse is 2 ms, so that the servo will now be moved exactly the same amount the distance corresponding to a pulse of 0.


The logic levels for CMOS are not defined as absolute voltages but as percentages of supply voltage. Elektof from the minor annoyance of not knowing if a circcuits Is in stereo unless one buys the Radio Times there is the greater inconvenience of listening to mono transmissions with the poorer signal-to-noise ratio inherent in stereo transmission. A portion of the output signal from AI is rectified by D1 and the resulting peak positive voltage is stored on C4.

As a rule of thumb allow about 10 M F per mA, The base current can be found by dividing the maximum output cur- rent by the gain of the transistor.

Furthermore, the reservoir capacitor must be larger than necessary to prevent the supply to the falling below 8,5 Y in the ripple troughs.

Elektor – 301 Circuits

Should the authentic poltergeist then fail to put in an ap- pearance, the ambitions ghost-hunter can ensure success by virtue of circuite electronic circuifs. However, since a replacement lamp may not always be available, a secret ‘caned 1 switch SI is required.

The average voltage fed to the series transistor will thus be less than 8. Accessories inside the car, such as radios and cassette players, may also be protected by con- necting a wire from one of the alarm inputs to the earthed case of the equipment.

Bear In mind that the human body will not necessarily survive contact with input voltages that may not damage the adequately-rated input blocking capacitor. The main positive supply voltage is obtained from the transformer via bridge rectifier Circuiits and reservoir capacitor C3.

The most useful way of doing this is to frequency-scale the input signal, by means of a bucket-brigade ana- logue delay linerlektor that the display fits in nicely with the available sweep speed.

Complete circuit of the function generator. The oscilloscope time- base speed should be adjusted so that the display of the four voltage levels just occupies the whole screen width.


There is also it he possibility that an open -circuit may be encountered when using a logic tester. This signal is fed back via Cl to the input of the Schmitt trigger. This is the principle of the automatic mono-stereo switch. The input resistance of the circuit is equal to R5, so R5 must obviously be made equal to the de- sired input resistance. An expanded view of a portion of the waveform as seen on a correctly cali- brated oscilloscope. The VCO output from pin 4 may be used to drive CMOS circuits direct, however, circiits other applications a transis- tor buffer may be required.

Full text of “Elektor – Circuits”

To this end C4 and R4 are included; these components enable the preset inputs of these counters briefly when power is first applied. A TTL-compatible pulse output is provided A for simple frequency counters etc. An ideal basis for constructional projects and a comprehensive source of ideas for anyone interested in elec- tronics.

The complete output waveform, shown in figure 2comprises a burst circuite pulses approx. The latter choise of course implies that every reading will require a little mental gymnastics! N1 and N2 form a flip-flop bistable multivibra- tor. To ensure that the lighting is supplied solely by the AC voltage, each carriage is DC decoupled by means of a capacitor.

To charge a number of cells the portion of the circuit enclosed in the dotted box must be dupli- cated. As a rule of thumb, a safe value is usually approximately twice” the DC supply voltage.

Figure la shows the basic circuit, which uses three of the gates in a quad two-input NAND buffer IC, N1 and N2 are connected as a 20 kHz corcuits multivibrator, and the output of N2 drives N3, which acts as a buffer between the astable and the doubler circuit. The Table lists frequency ranges for a few capacitor values.