ESCALA DE LILEY PDF

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The black bear has inhabited North America for three million years. Two clades diverged during this period: The contact between both is a recent event. Because there is a high genetic differentiation between subclasses, the genetic flow of populations between Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental is considered as restricted to nonexistent; also, desert environments and human settlements act as a barrier.

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There are no recent records of black bears in Durango, so the capture of an individual from there presents the opportunity to test whether there is a possible connection between the populations of Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental. Our objective was to determine the geographic origin of this individual and validate whether there is a likely connection between populations from both mountain ranges.

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This specimen was sedated. Tissue samples from ear, hair and excrement were collected; samples of mtDNA were extracted and amplified, and two bp sequences were obtained. The haplotype was characterized by a neutrality test of the control region.

To determine the origin of the specimen, GenBank was searched for matches with haplotypes previously described and geographically characterized.

Six bp sequences were successfully amplified. The neutrality test yielded a single haplotype, with a Haplotype C has been previously described for the Trans-Pecos region in Texas; accordingly, this haplotype belongs to the eastern subclade.

The origin of the black bear specimen captured was Sierra Madre Oriental, based on the presence of haplotype C. This bear traveled at least km to reach the municipality of Guadalupe Victoria. This displacement event indicates that connectivity between black bear populations from both Sierras Madres has been maintained.

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This distance is similar to displacements previously reported in fragmented environments where a suitable habitat is surrounded by arid zones. However, escaa displacement took place between two large mountain ranges, rather than within a single mountain range.

Genetic diversity, frequency of displacement events between the Sierras, time and distance between displacements, dispersal routes and presence of patches of suitable habitat, are all factors that should be evaluated in order to understand the current dispersal and genetic-flow patterns between the subspecies of bears in Mexico. Modeling connectivity of black bears in a desert sky island archipelago. Phylogenetics analyses manual Chromas 2. Potential distribution of American black bears in Northwest Mexico and implications for their conservation.

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Lista de especies en riesgo. Dynamics of a black bear population within a desert metapopulation.

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Black bears in Lileg, an update of literature review. Pleistocene mammals of North America. Van Den Bussche, and D. Phylogeographic patterns within a metapopulation of lioey bears Ursus americanus in the American Southwest. Journal of Mammalogy Small-scale structure of American black bears illustrates potential postglacial recolonization routes.

Disponible en available at http: An assessment of abundance, diet, and cultural significance of Mexican gray wolves in Arizona. Geographic distribution of American black bears in North America Ursus Why replication is so important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains.

Van Den Bussche, R.

University of Arizona Press. Phylogeography and Pleistocene evolution in the North American black bear.

Molecular Biology and Evolution Telefonowww. Tel Ayuda de la revista. One black bear Ursus americanus connects the great sierras: Resumen The black bear has inhabited North America for three million years.