: Differend: Phrases in Dispute (Theory and History of Literature) ( ): Jean-Francois Lyotard: Books. This original study examines Jean-François Lyotard’s philosophical concept of the differend and details its unexplored implications for literature. it provides a. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box

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Lyotard was a prolific writer on both art and philosophical aesthetics.

Crome, Keith, Lyotard and Greek Thought: What these writers share is a concern with the decline of belief in objective values the “death of God” and the strangeness and nausea of the human body. Jones, Graham, Lyotard Reframed London: By this he means that we live among and through a variety of language games science, art, politics, and so on Just Gaming Theory attempts to be detached and “cold,” and takes itself diffeend be a stable and consistent structure which represents stable structures in the world.

This characterisation of events as phrases may be understood as a theoretical fiction or “a way of speaking” which allows Lyotard to develop a theory of events through the analysis of language, just as the libidinal philosophy does using libidinal energy. In the early s Lyotard developed a philosophy based around Sigmund Freud’s theory of the libido. This means giving up the idea of a single, law-like theoretical schema which could be applied to any situation in which judgment is required.

Writings on Differsnd Art and Artists vol.

Jean-François Lyotard: “Le Différend,” Part One | Art History Unstuffed

Writings on Contemporary Art and Artists vol. Despite this linguistic model, phrases may be extralinguistic, including the very gestures, shadings, and libidinal energetics he had discussed in his earlier writings. Libidinal Economy is an unusual and difficult work, and encompasses a complex set of theories concerning politics, economics, theory, academic style, and readings of Marx and Freud.

Postmodern Condition5. Finally the bar differene and forms a stable disjunction. Kearney, Richard, Poetics of Imagining: Leuven University Press, The nihilistic aspect of representational theory is this denial of the libidinal.

Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. He develops this view of language by appealing to Saul Kripke’s concept of the proper name as a “rigid designator” and by defining “reality” in an original way. While Lyotard has given up on the possibility and desirability of a socialist revolution, he is still interested in the deployment of revolutionary desires.


Lyotard suggests science could go either way. Justification is a pr oblem Lyotard must address, and one for which his philosophy does account. Any lyohard of Twitter knows the problem: The Marxist metanarrative gives science a role in the emancipation of humanity.

Lyotard needs a methodological representation to apply to society in order to examine the status of knowledge in postmodern societies. He champions paralogy over performativity, since it contributes to healthy research in pyotard sciences and undermines the hegemonic control capital attempts to have. He proceeds to deconstruct this opposition, however, and attempts to show that discourse and figure are mutually implicated.

Differend: Phrases in Dispute

The habit of a Marxist analysis existed as a subterranean subtext with in The Postmodern Condition: Lyotard’s libidinal philosophy prescribes a “freeing up” of structures, differenv that events may be allowed differned maximum potentiality of expression in competing interpretations and dispositions.

On the other hand, capitalism tends to hoard up libidinal energy into structured and regulated systems, restricting its flow. The problem for Lyyotard otard is, therefore, not merely a problem of language and its necessary structur e, but it is a problem of justice and the ability to remedy injustices. His most substantial writings of this time were his contributions to the Socialisme ou Barbarie journal on the political situation in Algeria [many of which are collected in Political Writings ].

Many tribal groups claim that land which they traditionally inhabited is now owned and controlled by the descendants of European colonists. Bearing witness leaves no room fo r action; no pathway towards reconciliation of past injustices, or prevention of future one’s. Lyotard’s philosophical commitments distance him from the presuppositions underlying the traditional genre of biography, where the subject is assumed to be unified and the text is taken to represent the truth about that subject.

A painting is not a rigidly difrerend structured piece of work in which the outcome is determined beforehand, but a process of experimentation.

Nested inside this procession of propositions are intermittent series of paragraphs which discuss, in a smaller font, related writings of other philosophers and this internal progression of the argument has its own numbering system. Lyotard describes his kyotard up until the Second World War as a ‘poetic, introspective and solitary way of thinking and living.

One can either acquiesce in the violence engendered by langu age or one can creatively link onto the discourse, create new possibilities of e xpression and thereby eliminate some acts of violence.


Phrase regimens fix the instances of the phrase universe within a concatenation; these regimens differnd syntactic types of phrases lotard as the cognitive, the descriptive, the prescriptive, the interrogative, the evaluative, and so on. Also forthcoming as Vol. In order to do this Lyotard belie ves language must be made less restrictive, or as he says one must proliferate i dioms such that all cases of injustices are expressible.

The flat band that the body has become is then given a twist and joined end to end, forming a moebius strip a circular figure which has only one surface due to the twist it contains; a line traced along one side of the strip will end up on the other side without breaking contact with the surface.

Structuralism seeks to explain everything in terms of underlying, conditioning structures that take the form of rigid systems of oppositions. Lyotard develops the theory of the differend lyyotard a complex analysis of language, drawing heavily on analytic philosophers as well as ancients and early lyotadr. Lyotard develops a critical but nuanced approach towards theory, politics and economics within the terms of the libidinal philosophy.

So although all action, all communication, is violence, differene se lf-reflective and self-aware one can continually lyotadr the muddy waters of di scourse and correct past and prevent future injustices. A rigid theory of how the body interacts with space, as Merleau-Ponty may arguably be accused of developing, also exhibits structuralist tendencies. An affect might be a sound, a color, a smile or a caress: This is the particular transformation of the libidinal band – or the particular dispositif on the libidinal band — that gives rise to representation and theory.

If one recognizes that a wrong has been done, then one is to b ear witness to lyotars violence. Rather, when attempting to express a wrong what must occur is that the original feeling must be translated into a phrase, or idiom, in the dominant discourse.